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Leaving aside such individual and often spectacular cases that have been uncovered, the total number of image manipulations in submitted scientific papers remains unknown and can only be estimated, e.g. by online surveys among scientists. According to such a survey by Martinson et al., 0.3% of 3247 scientists admitted to having “cooked” or falsified research data themselves. About 15% said that they had previously engaged in behaviors such as “dropping observations or data points”, and 4.7% admitted to reusing data in two or more publications (Martinson et al. Gianni Versace Suede HookAndEye Boots Discount Best Store To Get Marketable Cheap Online Reliable Sale Online New Arrival m7NAUoh
) (the survey did not explicitly ask about image manipulation). Recently, based on a visual (“by eye”) screening of 20,621 papers in 40 scientific journals, a group of US-researchers estimated the prevalence of the specific case of inappropriate image duplication at 3.8%, with an increasing tendency during the past decade (Bik et al. 2016 ). This is in line with the observation that in biomedical literature, the number of retractions has increased in the last few years, in many cases due to manipulated images (Krueger Marni Rubber Multistrap Sandals Sale Cheap Prices Clearance Visit New Latest Collections For Sale Enjoy Cheap Online UgNQ0j0T
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Spectacular cases of fraud with broader media attention refuel the debate on how such manipulation could have been avoided and who will be responsible for better quality control in the future. Journal editors have recognized this problem and organized in the “Committee on publication ethics” (COPE, UGG Australia ShearlingTrimmed Leather Pumps Buy Online New 6GY1WNy
). However, journals such as the Journal of Cell Biology controlling systematically images are rather regarded as an exception (Couzin 2006b ). Responsible editors usually point out reviewers’ and editors’ limited possibilities, as did Donald Kennedy, former editor-in-chief at Science: “Peer review cannot detect [fraud] if it is artfully done. (…) And the reported falsifications in the Hwang paper—image manipulation and fake DNA data—are not the sort that reviewers can easily spot” (Couzin Sale Outlet Locations STEPH Heeled mules black Outlet Locations Cheap Price Cheapest Free Shipping Fashion Style Cheap Exclusive N2sG0cDijG
). Concerning the above-mentioned case of oncologist Jon Sudbø, Richard Horton, editor of The Lancet, claimed: “This is all so similar to the Hwang thing that we have just been through. (…) Peer review is a great system for detecting badly done research, but if you have an investigator determined to fabricate an entire study, it is not possible to pick it up” (Butler Burberry LaserCut Suede Sandals Cheap Sale From China ODK113jG
). Even clearly fabricated papers have a good chance to be accepted, as John Bohannon showed in an experiment with free access journals (Bohannon 2013 ).

These statements seem to still be true today, at least for more sophisticated manipulations that are undetectable by the bare eye, or for manipulations obviously violating established guidelines such as Nature Journal’s guidelines for “Image integrity and standards” (Nature 2016 ). Such guidelines provide some orientation to which degree an image may still be regarded as authentic after electronic corrections to brightness, contrast etc. To our knowledge, there is still a lack of widely spread and standardized screening methods for reviewers or editors to routinely verify the authenticity of a submitted scientific image. In principle, such screening tools would be useful for everybody involved in the process of quality control. However, journal editors, in particular, should have a choice from a variety of different methods because falsifiers, who also have access to any given screening tool on the free market, will eventually learn to mask their manipulations and render them undetectable by this specific screening tool.

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Efficiencies resulting from DLT can add up to some serious cost savings. DLT systems make it possible for businesses and banks to streamline internal operations, dramatically reducing the expense, mistakes, and delays caused by traditional methods for reconciliation of records.

The widespread adoption of DLT will bring enormous cost savings in three areas, advocates say:

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Blockchain's removal of almost all human involvement in processing is particularly beneficial in cross-border trades, which usually take much longer because of time-zone issues and the fact that all parties must confirm payment processing. Blockchain systems can set up smart contracts or payments triggered when certain conditions are met. The blockchain cotton transaction mentioned above, for example, used a smart contract that automatically made partial payments when the cotton shipment reached specific geographic milestones.

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